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What exactly is gum disease?

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Medically reviewed by
M.D. Can Tokman

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This blog post is for informational purposes only and should not be considered as medical advice. Please consult with a qualified dentist for personalized treatment recommendations.

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You will find answers to the following questions in this article:

  1. What is gum disease and what causes it?
  2. How common is gum disease?
  3. What are the signs and symptoms of gum disease?
  4. Can gum disease be reversed or cured?
  5. What are the treatment options for gum disease?

What exactly is gum disease?

Infections and inflammation of the gums and bone that surround and support the teeth are the main causes of periodontal disorders. When gingivitis occurs in its early stages, the gums may swell, get red, and even bleed. Periodontitis, its more severe variant, can cause bone loss, gum tissue separation from the tooth, and eventual tooth loss. Most cases of periodontal disease occur in adulthood. The two main dangers to dental health are periodontal disease and tooth decay.

The progression of advanced gum disease is aggressive. It can strike when you least expect it can even appear as a result of a simple cleaning routine error. This can be the result of a change in lifestyle or higher duties at work or home. It can’t really be disregarded in the hopes that it will go away. Fortunately, there are now a variety of periodontitis management methods to control even advanced gum disease, reducing the likelihood of tooth loss.

Symptoms of gum disease

The majority of people are unaware they have gum disease. Gingivitis can exist without showing any symptoms. However, the following signs of gum disease can be witnessed:

  • Gums that bleed when you brush or floss your teeth gums that are red, sensitive, or swollen
  • Teeth that are loose gums that have peeled away from your teeth
  • Pus between your teeth and gums, which causes a shift in how your teeth fit together when you bite
  • Sensitive teeth pain while biting partial dentures that no longer fit
  • Bad breath that persists even after brushing your teeth

Causes of gum disease

Periodontitis typically develops from plaque, a sticky film made primarily of bacteria that forms over teeth. Here is how plaque can eventually develop into periodontitis if untreated:

When sugars and carbohydrates from food combine with bacteria that are naturally present in your mouth, plaque is created on your teeth. Plaque is removed by brushing your teeth twice a day and flossing once a day, but plaque quickly builds again.

If plaque is left on your teeth, it can develop under your gum line into tartar (calculus). Tartar contains a lot of germs and is more difficult to remove. Plaque and tartar can do more harm to your teeth the longer they are allowed to build up. Tartar cannot be removed by brushing and flossing; a professional tooth cleaning is required.

The most mild type of gum disease, gingivitis, can be brought on by plaque. Gum disease, often known as gingivitis, is an irritation and inflammation of the gum tissue that surrounds the tooth’s root (gingiva). With medical assistance and appropriate oral hygiene practices at home, gingivitis can be cured.

Continuous gum Inflammation can results in pockets of plaque, tartar, and germs between your gums and teeth, can be brought on by inflammation. These crevices deepen over time, accumulating more bacteria. If left untreated, these severe infections result in bone and tissue loss, which could lead to the eventual loss of one or more teeth. Additionally, persistent chronic inflammation might strain your immune system.

Dental Treatment Options For Gum Disease

Controlling the infection is the major objective of treatment. Depending on the severity of the gum disease, several treatment options and numbers will be available. Any form of treatment necessitates that the patient maintain a high standard of daily care at home. The dentist could also advise altering specific habits, like stopping smoking, to enhance the outcomes of your treatment.

The goal of periodontal treatment is to heal disorders of the soft and hard tissues that surround the teeth as well as to repair any damage these diseases have done. Therefore, the first step in therapy is for the patient to actively brush, use dental floss, or use interdental brushes to remove dental plaque from the teeth. The next step is for the dentist to clean the teeth and remove any leftover plaque.

The foundation of periodontal procedures is providing effective relief for mild gingival inflammation and serve as a pre-op for more complex periodontal procedures. It is typically done under local anesthesia to treat osteoporosis, new bone formation targeted help, and biomaterials (bone powder, membranes, etc.) used in surgical procedures. Inflamed gums, enlarged gums, and gums pulled from the tooth-gum have occurred due to melting of the gaps between the jawbones.

Only the gums or all the tissues that surround the gums can be treated with periodontal procedures. If the issue simply involves the gums, the overgrown gums are cut back, but if the issue involves deep tissues and bone resorption, a separate procedure is used. Bone is realigned, gum is removed, inflammatory tissues are cleansed, and a variety of biomaterials are used to make new bone. After being put over the bone with sutures, the gum tissue is let to recover. The stitches are then taken out 1 or 2 weeks later.

Checks are required three to six months after the operation. The application of biomaterials is anticipated to result in tissue repair by reducing inflammation, halting the spread of the illness, and fostering an environment in which the patient might perform efficient self-cleaning. All of these enable the patient to maintain healthy gums for a long time.

Treatments for Gum Infection

You should see a dentist as soon as you notice a gum infection. After a gum infection has been identified, you will have a variety of treatment choices, which may vary depending on how severe the gum infection is. Here are a few typical ways to treat gum infection:

a) Non-Surgical treatments

  • Scaling. Tartar and bacteria are removed from tooth surfaces and the gum line during scaling. Instruments, a laser, or an ultrasonic device may be used to execute it.
  • Root planing. Root planing removes bacterial byproducts that cause irritation, impede healing, or cause the gums to reattach to the tooth surfaces while smoothing the root surfaces to prevent further tartar and bacterial buildup.With this cutting-edge gum infection therapy, your teeth’s roots are thoroughly cleaned between your gums and teeth.
  • Antibiotics. As with any infection, gum infection is frequently treated with antibiotics. In order to treat the gum infection, your dentist may decide to administer an antibiotic through pill or injection.

b) Surgical treatments

  • Gingivectomy: This procedure may be considered when the gums have started to pull away from the teeth, but before any damage has been caused to the bone structure. A Gingivectomy involves trimming and resealing the gum tissue to close deep pockets and prevent recurring infection. Any diseased gum tissue is removed and the remaining tissue stitched back into place. After the surgery and once the gums have healed it will be easier to keep your teeth and gums clean at home.
  • Soft tissue grafts
  • Bone grafting
  • Guided tissue regeneration. 
  • Tissue-stimulating proteins.
  • Flap Surgery: If your gum disease is severe, flap surgery may be necessary involving bone or tissue grafts. In order to peel back a portion of gum tissue and expose the roots for more efficient scaling and root planing, your periodontist makes a series of tiny incisions in your gum.

Is Scale And Root Planing Painful?

No, the treatment is not painful. Even though you will feel agony afterward, the procedure itself can be finished by injecting a local anesthetic into the soft tissue to lessen any discomfort while it is being done.

How to Reverse Gingivitis?

Fortunately, gingivitis can be reversed and periodontitis avoided within two weeks if your gums receive fast and efficient treatment. A severe form of gum disease called periodontitis necessitates pricey dental work and may result in tooth loss.

Understanding the issue is the first step in treating gum disease. Bacteria can accumulate between teeth and along the gum line even after brushing. Because it perceives this as a threat, your body reacts by inducing an inflammatory response to fight off infection. As a result, you have red, swollen, and painful gums that bleed when you brush, which is a clear indication that you need to quickly improve your oral hygiene regimen.

Preventing Gum Disease with a Regular Mouthwash Routine

Gum disease is an infection of the gums that can be caused by plaque, tartar, or bacteria. And it is usually accompanied by bleeding gums and bad breath. It can lead to more serious health problems if not treated and can also lead to tooth loss. The most common way to prevent gum disease is to brush your teeth twice a day and floss at least once a day. You should also visit your dentist for regular check-ups and cleanings.

Mouthwash is a great way to keep your mouth clean and healthy. A regular mouthwash routine can help prevent gum disease, bad breath, and tooth decay. It also helps to remove plaque from teeth that builds up over time.

There are many different types of mouthwashes available on the market today. Some people prefer to use a combination of mouthwash and toothpaste, while others use only one or the other. Mouthwashes come in different flavors like mint, cinnamon, or spearmint which may be more appealing to some people than others. Mouthwashes can also come in different strengths – some contain alcohol which may be helpful for those who have sensitive teeth or gums while others do not contain alcohol at all.

There are also many other types of oral care products that are available online and in stores. These include toothbrushes, toothpaste, dental floss, waterpik, mouthwash cups, and mouth rinses.

In conclusion, the benefits of using mouthwash instead of just toothpaste vary depending on the person’s needs and preferences.

How long a teeth can last with gum disease?

Gingivitis might begin mildly and initially go unnoticed, but it can eventually cause gum inflammation and other unpleasant symptoms. With time Due to its capacity to inhibit the immune system, stress has a significant role in the susceptibility to periodontal disease. Patients may also notice deepening spaces between the gums and teeth and bone loss due to old age or disease. Despite the fact that every patient is unique, advanced and untreated periodontitis can ultimately result in tooth loss.

One of the complications of periodontal disease is tooth loss. Other bodily parts may be impacted by the harm-causing bacteria that enters the blood through the gums. Periodontitis has been linked to disorders like diabetes, coronary artery disease, and respiratory illnesses.


At Istanbul Dental, in order to maintain convenient process and stress free treatment, your dentist will discuss all your options with you before starting any treatment plan so that you can make an informed decision about how best to move forward with improving your smile! That’s a start for a warm smile with satisfaction of our services.

At Istanbul Dental, with our qualified team we are ready to answer your additional questions, so do not hesitate to get in touch with us . Also, get a quote to start planning your dental treatment as whole process including your VIP transfer! While gathering information and inspecting the options about the dental services, we recommend you to visit our smile gallery and see our previous patients’ sincere smiles.

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    Last reviewed by

    Istanbul Dental Clinics medical professionals on 18 August 2022

    As Istanbul Dental Clinics team, we always encourage you to visit your dentist regularly. In order to maintain your oral health, care about your dentals.

    If you have some consideration, questions or in need of consultation, our professionals are ready to help.

    Trust the EDAD esthetic dentist. 

    The EDAD is a professional association of esthetic dentists dedicated to, among other things, “improving the health of the public by promoting quality aesthetic care, the importance of overall oral healthcare, and advocating for the public interest.” Your health and well-being are extremely important.

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    Before making any decision about aesthetic dental treatment, consider doing some research and having an in-person consultation with a member of the Turkish Academy of Esthetic Dentistry.


    This is an Internationally recognised, continual evaluation process to provide the highest quality and performance assurance to our patients.

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